Why I Know Mormons Are Not Christians

Paul Derengowski

 

I'm a MormonThere are plenty of opinions that continues to be tossed about regarding the question of whether members of the Mormon Church (“Latter-day Saints”) are Christians. A most recent contribution in the Washington Post by BYU Professor Robert Millet is another example, even though his reasoning was simply more of the same repeated misleading disinformation expressed before by him, et al, which really never addresses the heart of the question. 1  Therefore, I would like to proffer the following reasons why Mormons cannot be Christians, particularly if they are basing their profession on their religious beliefs: beliefs that very few Mormons actually understand historically, as well as beliefs that most missionaries are unwilling to discuss at the front door when they arrive to peddle the wonders of Joseph Smith.

The approach I will take follows Dr. Millet’s piece mentioned above, since once again, it is the model argument most Mormons take in trying to justify their claim. Millet presents essentially four premises: (1) that early Christians thought that the Mormons were Christians; (2) Mormonism is built on the foundation of Jesus Christ; (3) Mormons, by definition, are Christians, since they follow Jesus; (4) Mormons should be allowed to define themselves. Let us examine the reality of these four legs upon which Mormons wish to rest their argument to see whether or not they are true. All it will take is for one of the four to be untrue to invalidate the overall claim. And if the Mormon claim is invalid, then they either need to come up with a better argument—where the premises are true—or they need to abandon the attempt altogether. Otherwise, they become deceivers, starting with self-deception, not Christians.

Christians Thought the Mormons Were Christians Too

Mormons typically follow Millet’s line of thinking, which began in the Washington Post, with the following statements:

So far as I can determine, the cry of “Mormons are not Christian” was not heard very often during the formative period of Mormon history. Baptists and Methodists and Presbyterians in the area knew that the followers of Joseph Smith believed in doctrinal matters that deviated somewhat from traditional Christianity. Folks seemed to assume, however, that Mormonism fit under the umbrella of Christianity.

In other words, since very few, if anyone, especially the Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians, said nothing about the Mormons being Christians, then by deduction the Mormons must be Christian. Moreover, the deviations in Mormon doctrine from the mainstream of Christian thought is so minimal that to assume that Mormonism itself is not Christian is to falsely conclude that Mormonism does not fit under the Christian umbrella. There are a couple of problems with this opening premise starting with the argument from silence, followed by a simple misstatement of the facts.

First of all, just because a certain group of religious believers, or people in general, did not frequently mouth the words, “Mormons are not Christians,” in no way should be interpreted to mean just the opposite. Given the relative obscurity of Mormonism amid the revival fervor taking place in what was then known as the “Burned-Over District” in upstate New York, when Joseph Smith started his cult in 1830, it should come as no surprise that declarations about Mormonism were few and far between. The revivalists had other things on their minds. What was said, though, by those who signed affidavits about Smith, his family, and his “church” ought to cause any rational thinking person to understand that Smith and his religion were not thought of highly, much less as a representative of Christianity. Instead, he was seen as more of a scurrilous impostor who had a penchant for digging for treasure, drunkenness and lying, while his family was viewed as a bunch of worthless louts who did not seem to have a problem with “borrowing” money to subsist, but had a big problem with paying people back. 2  Of course, Dr. Millet in his zeal to paint Mormons and Mormonism in the most favorable a light as possible, given the upcoming Presidential elections, of which Mitt Romney has become a poster child for the Mormon cause, would naturally fail to mention such ignominious commentary.

A second problem with Millet’s statement stems from his attempt to mitigate the difference between Mormon doctrinal thought and historic, biblical Christian thought. To him Joseph Smith only “deviated somewhat from traditional Christianity,” and then later attempts to carefully, and in extremely limited fashion, elaborate on just what those slight deviations might be. Whether Millet is practicing deception or whether he is blindly deceived himself, the fact of the matter is that what Joseph Smith, and later Mormonism, taught about God, Jesus, the Holy Spirit, Revelation (i.e., the Bible), Man, Sin, Salvation, the Church, Angels, and Last Things, are so far wide of the mark in terms of what Christians have believed for two millennia as to be completely unrecognizable. God is an exalted man, 3 Jesus is the spirit brother of Satan, 4 the Holy Spirit is fixed in time and space, 5 the Bible has been corrupted and needs the Book of Mormon for corrective purposes, 6 as man is God once was—as God is man may become, 7 sin is an opportunity to achieve godhood, 8 salvation is both universalistic and individual, 9 with the latter accomplished through one’s personal, legalistic effort, 10 angels are reconstituted human beings, 11 and the New Jerusalem will be established in Independence, Missouri, 12 among other absurdities. 13 Once again, if Millet was not being intentionally deceptive, then clearly he has no idea what the Bible reveals, much less what Christianity has taught, on those major doctrines since the Christian Church’s inception. In the opinion of this writer, having dealt with Mormons like Millet, it is more likely the former than the latter. Millet must use deception, because he knows that telling the truth is detrimental to his cause.

Finally, an assumption based on another assumption in no way should lead anyone to assume that something is true. Dr. Millet, in other words, is merely assuming that the Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians that Joseph Smith and his Mormonism was Christian, again based on silence. Yet, arguments from silence are notoriously fallacious. What would have made Millet’s argument more plausible is if he could have made a positive citation of those in the Baptist, Methodist, or Presbyterian churches who concurred that Mormonism fit under the “umbrella of Christianity.” At least then his argument might have some merit. But, he does not do that, most likely because Dr. Robert Millet knows that what the Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians have been teaching for centuries have absolutely nothing in common with what Joseph Smith had concocted. A different God, a different Jesus, a different gospel, to mention just a few examples, have kept the Mormons and Mormonism on the fringe of religious existence, if not completely outside the realm of biblical Christianity. And until there is a complete overhaul of their mindset and its doctrines, they will remain on the fringe and not under the umbrella Christianity at all.

Mormonism is Built on the Foundation of Jesus Christ

Dr. Millet, and those who use a similar line of argumentation, continues his forked-tongue folly by asserting that Mormonism itself is based on the person of Jesus Christ. He claims, “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is built upon the person, power and teachings of Jesus Christ. He is our King, our Lord, and our God.” A couple of observations are worth noting in Millet’s high-sounding self-praise. First, he says nothing about which Jesus he is talking about. According to both Jesus and the apostle Paul, there are all kinds of Jesus’ that exist, but there is only one who is authentic (See Matt. 24:5, 23 and 2 Cor. 11:4). Their prescription, though, is not to merely assent to whatever claims those Jesus’ make, or to simply accept the professions of those claiming to be Christians. Why? Because of the deception factor. Anyone claiming to be Jesus or a follower of Jesus, and his story does not line-up with what God has to say about Jesus from God’s book, the Bible, is not someone to be trifled with. In fact, Jesus says “do not believe Him.” Similarly, the apostle Paul sarcastically chided the Corinthian church for being naïve enough to follow those making “Christian” claims, even though their claims were mere boasts at best.

Clearly the Mormon Jesus that Millet lauds is not the Jesus of the Bible. Not only did the Mormon Jesus progress unto godhood, if Mormon salvation means anything at all in terms of consistency, then the Mormon Jesus, like his human father—who lived out a sinful life on another planet before being redeemed and spiritually regenerated, and then became a god as well—was a vile, wretched, lost sinner, just like those he supposedly came to seek and to save. Of course, Mormons regularly make appeals to his sinless life, having been born of a virgin, but they make their appeals by ignoring their own Christology while borrowing from biblical Christianity. In fact, they have to borrow from biblical Christian beliefs in order to maintain an air of legitimacy. Then, when the coast is clear, they revert back to their tawdry doctrinal statements about Jesus being a spirit child, a brother of Satan, who came to earth, paid the sin debt in the Garden of Gethsemane, and then after his ascension, became a god, and then descended to America to preach to the Indians. Of course, there are some Mormons who also believe that Jesus was Polygamously married and sired children, just like he saw his father do—and is prescribed by the Mormon hierarchy for Mormon members to participate in, if they truly wish to reach the lofty heights of godhood one day—and is now judging the dead as to their worthiness, along with God the Father and Joseph Smith. So, while Dr. Millet and the Mormons love to brag about the foundation upon which their Mormonism is based, it does not take much to see that after the religious façade is stripped away, that the Jesus of Mormonism is not the Jesus of the Bible. And given the obvious disparity between the two, those following the former, rather than the latter, cannot be Christians in the true sense of the word either.

Dr. Millet goes on to qualify his statement, though, with these misguided comments related to the Early Church. He writes, “Now, because Mormons do not hold to the decisions and formulations of the post-biblical church councils, and because we believe in an expanded canon of scripture, some do not consider us to be a part of “orthodox” Christianity. They are correct.” First of all, Mormons love to make a big issue out of the pronouncements of the Early Church, particularly the creeds that were written as a result, as if those pronouncements were in some way contrary to what the Bible teaches. When queried about just what specific problem the Mormons have with say the Nicene or Athanasian creeds, or even the Apostles Creed, one is typically met with dead silence or a deer in the headlights look. Why? Mostly because the average Mormon has no idea what the creeds say, much less the historical background behind their development. All the Mormon is concerned about is promoting Mormonism and that at the cost of sacrificing the truth. It might sound separatist and puritan to distinguish oneself from the rest of Christianity, mainly because Christendom itself exalts those dastardly creeds which are antithetical to primitive Christianity. The problem, though, is that such a position is rooted in both arrogance and ignorance. Besides the fact that the early church creeds are soundly based in biblical teaching, a casual perusal through them clearly reveals what Christians have believed about things like the deity of Jesus and Trinity, and that to the consternation of the Mormon who knows what he believes has absolutely nothing to do with Christianity, Jesus, or the Bible, and everything under the sun to try and undermine it.

Orthodox—which is a compound Greek word which means to think right (ortho – “right” and dox (from dokein) – “to think”)—Christianity is simply Christian thought done in a correct manner, particularly as guided by the inspired, inerrant Word of God. Neither Dr. Millet nor Mormonism are orthodox in their thinking because their foundation is not only flawed, but because they have failed to understand and appreciate those that have preceded them. And if they are not orthodox, then they are heterodox, unorthodox, or just plain heretical. It is not something to be proud of, as wrong thinking about the things of God will only land a person in hell and then the Lake of Fire for eternity without remedy.

Mormons Follow Jesus

The third prong in Millet’s argument is similar to the previous premise with the exception that he, like all Mormons, has chosen to redefine what a Christian is. To Millet, so long a person follows someone claiming to be Jesus or as long as the Mormon is comfortable with his concept of Jesus, then voila! A person is a Christian, since Christians follow Jesus. And since Mormons follow Jesus—which is evidenced by their actions and not just right beliefs—then by deduction they must be Christians too. In Millet’s own words he states, “We believe a Christian is one who follows Jesus. For us, one is a Christian not simply because he or she possesses a ‘correct’ theology. One’s Christian faith ought to be manifest in the way he speaks to and treats others.” There are so many flaws in this kind of thinking that it would take an article itself to explain them all. A short sampling of them should suffice, though, to show just how far awry Millet has gone to make his case.

First, a Christian is not just someone who follows Jesus. Several people during Jesus’ day followed him, and then when it came time for him to be crucified, they either scattered or were complicit in his condemnation. A Christian is someone who has been redeemed and regenerated by God apart from anything he could possibly will or do (Jn. 1:3; Eph. 2:8-9; Tit. 3:5). It is only then that a person has the want and capability to “follow Jesus.” This whole concept flies in the face of Mormon theology which places the onus directly on the shoulders of the sinner to save himself via his works or what is known in Mormonism as “Individual Salvation.” According to the late Mormon President Joseph Fielding Smith, “Man must be redeemed according to law, and his reward must be based on the law of justice. Because of this, the Lord will not give unto men that which they do not merit, but shall reward all men according to their works.” 14

Second, it is because of “correct” theology that a person manifests works that are consistent with his profession. Can you just imagine a person claiming to be a Buddhist, a Hindu, or even a Mormon, and yet espouse beliefs that are erroneous or contrary to what those theological worldviews espouse? That person would only be one of those religious persuasions in name only. In turn, those who are “orthodox” Buddhists, Hindus, and Mormons would not welcome those with open arms should they persist in their non-traditional, unorthodox claims. In fact, they would be ousted or rejected and then branded as a heretic or perhaps something worse. Yet, Millet attempts to mitigate the necessity of correct theology for identity purposes simply because of his burning desire to be something that Mormon theology otherwise will not allow. He wants to be recognized as a Christian while subscribing to a theological worldview that is completely contrary to what it means to be a Christian. In this sense his intellectual dishonesty betrays him, just like it does all Mormons who attempt to use this kind of argumentation to justify themselves.

Finally, while it is true that a Christian’s words and actions must be consistent in their treatment toward others, it is also quite clear from the foregoing that Millet cannot be a Christian, much less any Mormon who might agree with him, because his words are fraught with deceit. On the one hand Millet has written a piece that he hopes will sway his reading audience into thinking that Mormons are Christians simply because they speak the same lingo as others Christians, while on the other hand he fails or refuses to reveal that that lingo comes with a completely different set of dictionary definitions that have been constructed by Joseph Smith and the Mormon hierarchy. By engaging in such activity he not only breaks the Golden Rule that he implicitly alludes to, he gives clear evidence that the ends justifies the means, which is a relativistic principle that is equally non-Christian. So, while Millet wishes that Mormons are Christians because they follow Jesus, it is not difficult for the discerning mind to understand that not only is the Mormon Jesus not the biblical Jesus, the aberrant theology of Mormonism breeds contemptible behavior by those who subscribe to it, particularly when the pressure of the truth is applied to expose it.

Mormons Should Be Allowed to Define Themselves

The final premise upon which Millet has chosen to build his argument is the often-heard piteous statement that Mormons should be allowed to define themselves and their beliefs. That those on the outside have no right to tell them what they believe. That Mormons are indeed Christians simply because they say so, and that the critics of Mormonism just do not understand Mormon belief properly in order to represent them to the rest of the world. Moreover, to tear down Mormonism is not something that Christ would have done; instead he would have simply promoted what he thought and forgot about any biting criticism. Magnify the commonalities rather than the dissimilarities is a much better approach to understanding Mormonism, at least according to the typical Mormon apologist. According to Millet,

As Mormons, we ask to be permitted to define ourselves and explain what we really believe. While we have no desire to compromise our distinctiveness or ignore our differences with other groups, we feel it is appropriate to celebrate our similarities and work together to remedy many of the troubling issues in our society. We ask only to be invited more regularly into the larger religious conversation.

Such reasoning, like that seen previously, is filled with so much misrepresentation, mischaracterization, and deceit that one finds it amazing that Millet, et al, continue to choose this approach for justification. For not only have the Mormons been allowed to “define” and “explain” themselves, the Mormon media empire owns huge outlets unparalleled by any Christian entity to do those very things. In 1999 Richard and Joan Ostling, writing on corporate Mormon America and the media outlets that existed then (and have since expanded with a maturing Internet presence), listed

The church’s media holdings include Bonneville International Corporations, which owns fifteen radio stations and two television stations. It has consolidated its holdings into four major markets: Washington, D.C., Chicago, San Francisco, and Salt Lake City. Bonneville sales in 1996 were $172 million. Bonneville donated an impressive $35 million to community services in 1996, according to the Radio Business Report.

They continued, “Bonneville also owns Salt Lake City’s 65,000-circulation Deseret News, a daily that recently built itself a fancy new building using $15 million of its own reserves (no tithe funds)…Through Deseret Management the church operates thirty-three bookstores in the United States, sixteen of them in Utah.” 15  So, it is not as if the Mormons have not been defining and explaining themselves all along. What Millet means is that he is repulsed by the idea that his critics have actually been reading and thinking about what the Mormons have been saying all along, and he does not like conclusions that have been drawn when compared to real, biblical Christianity. So, rather than deal with the criticism, he would rather accuse the critics of malicious wrongdoing, even though they keep pointing back to the works done by Mormon authors, like Robert Millet, which exposes their claims to Christianity to be patently false.

As for Millet’s comments about working together with non-Mormons to solve societal ills, and then to be a part of the “larger religious conversation,” that is all diversionary subterfuge based on nonsense. For given the worldview of the Mormons, when it is drawn out to its logical conclusion, they could not help to solve anything, let alone societal ills, simply because it ends in meaninglessness and despair. Their relativistic outlook, partly seen above, has no room for absolutes, God without exception. Therefore, whatever solution a Mormon might offer to combat say abortion, drunkenness, or homosexuality will ultimate fail, simply because there is no objective basis for their offering. It is all merely a matter of opinion. The same could be said for the larger religious conversation comment. The Lord already knows that we have enough opining going on in the broader religious conversation, and adding another subjective opinion, when people like Robert Millet refuse to be honest and upfront about his Mormonism, is not going to be to the benefit of anyone.

That said, the Mormons should be allowed to define and explain themselves, and those concerned about the truth hope that they do. It makes our job easier. On the other hand, what the Mormons cannot be allowed to do, though, is redefine Christian belief and thought according to the Mormon standard. To allow them to do so would be to completely sully biblical Christianity to the point of non-recognition. One might as well toss his Bible in the trash and go join a Masonic Temple or Rosicrucian Fellowship than to accept the Masonic-inspired and Rosicrucian-laden Mormon redefinition of Christianity. Of course, Millet and others would argue that the Freemasons, Rosicrucians, Gnostics, Arians, Hermetics, neo-Pelagians, and other heretics and occultists have nothing to do with Mormonism, but the historical and doctrinal record shows that Mormonism has more in common with them than anything taught in the Bible, let alone historic, biblical Christianity. So, while the Mormons will continue to define and explain themselves, they should be countered every step of the way when they choose to try and redefine Christianity in terms of the Mormon cult, and then include themselves in the biblical definition of what a Christian is and believes, when their history, doctrine, and practices are clearly anti-biblical and anti-Christian. If the Mormon chooses to brand those who do counter their anti-Christian claims as being intolerant, bigoted, or even un-Christlike, so be it. Given the Mormon track record of intolerance, bigotry, and un-Christlike doctrine, such objections are as inconsistent and hypocritical as the rest of Mormonism, and should be dealt with accordingly.

Final Thoughts

From the preceding it should be evident that Dr. Millet and the Mormon argument used to validate the claim that Mormons are Christians has failed miserably. Not one of the premises offered were found to be true. The argument itself is invalid. Mormons cannot be Christians based on the argument presented by Millet, which is one that is constantly appealed to by the Mormon community before the general public to state otherwise. Therefore, he and the rest of the Mormon apologists attempting to “define” and “explain” why they should be considered to be Christians must either come up with a valid argument accompanied by true premises, or simply abandon the attempt altogether and align themselves with a more valid claim: Mormonism is a caricature of Christianity which consists of an amalgam of disparate pagan philosophies that have long since been denounced as incompatible with historic, biblical Christian claims.

The question, however, whether Mormons are Christians is not likely to die soon. As long as high-profile Mormons like Mitt Romney are either in places of public notoriety or running for offices of the President of the United States, those in the Mormon community will relish in the attention and be more than willing to spread the propaganda to a theologically ungrounded secular media willing to uncritically gobble-up every word for the sake of publishing or broadcasting a story. It becomes incumbent, therefore, for those who are Christians, and who know their history and Bibles well, to rebut the Mormon attempt to redefine the Christian identity with concepts and doctrines that are totally foreign to what Christians have stood and died for, for the past 2,000 years. Failure on the part of Christians to make such a stand will result in not only a hoodwinking of the general public, but an eventual demise of local Christian churches to the point of total obscurity and irrelevance. Mormons are not Christians and now you know some of the reasons why. What are you going to do with your knowledge?

Notes:

  1. Published June 4, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/are-mormons-christian/2012/06/04/gJQAxEzkDV_story.html (accessed June 5, 2012).
  2. See E. D. Howe’s Mormonism Unvailed, pages 231-269, as well as Rodger I. Anderson’s Joseph Smith’s New York Reputation Reexamined. The former catalogues testimony from those in the Palmyra, New York area where Joseph Smith grew up, and paints a picture of Joseph Smith, Jr. and his family as anything but Christian. The latter reexamines that testimony in light of attempted Mormon rebuttals, particular BYU Professor Richard Anderson’s, to show that the affidavits gathered by Dr. Philastus Hurbut by E. D. Howe were either misleading, sensationalized, or simply in error. Rodger Anderson concluded that the affidavits were what they purported to be, efforts by contemporaries during Joseph Smith’s time were found to actually be self-condemning, the witnesses contacted by Hurlbut and Deming did not perjury themselves, and “there is no evidence that the majority of witnesses indulged in malicious defamation by repeating groundless rumors.” In short, Joseph Smith was a scumbag from a line of scumbags, and their neighbors were unafraid to sign-off on a series of legal affidavits contending as much to the chagrin of Mormon revisionists and apologists attempting to rewrite history.
  3. Doctrine and Covenants 130:22; Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1976), 345; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2007), 40; Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1966), 319; Gospel Principles (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2009), 6, and 1995 ed., p. 8; Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, [1954]), 1:10; Clyde J. Williams, ed., The Teachings of Lorenzo Snow (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1996), 2; Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1997), 236; James E. Talmage, Articles of Faith (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1984), 38; John A. Widtsoe, A Rational Theology as Taught by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (John A. Widtsoe, 1915), 61; The First Presidency of the Church, “The Origin of Man,” Ensign, vol. 32, no. (February 2002), 30; “Strengthening the Family: Created in the Image of God, Male and Female,” Ensign, vol. 35, no. 1 (January 2005), 49; Keith B. Mullen, “God Loves and Helps All His Children,” Ensign, vol. 38, no. 11 (November 2008), 75; “Joseph Smith Teaches About God the Father,” New Era (February 2012), 31.
  4. The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, edited by Edward L. Kimball (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1982), 163; Spencer W. Kimball, Faith Precedes the Miracle (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1972), 87; Stephen W. Gibson, One-Minute Answer to Anti-Mormon Questions (Springville, UT: Horizon, 1995), 134-36; Joseph F. Merrill, General Conference Reports [hereafter GCR] (April 1949) on Infobases Gospel Library CD-ROM [hereafter IGLCD]; Matthew Roper, “Weldon Langfield, the Truth About Mormonism,” FARMS Review of Books on IGLCD; Daniel C. Peterson, “Decker’s Luciferian Obsession,” FARMS Review of Books, vol. 7, no. 2 (1995), 85-86 on IGLCD; Joseph Young, Journal of Discourses, vol. 6 (Oct. 11, 1857) on IGLCD; Jess L. Christensen, “I Have a Question,” Ensign (June 1986) on LDS Church Magazines 1971-1999 CD-ROM [hereafter CMCD]; “Lesson 2: Jesus Christ Volunteered to be Our Savior” http://www.lds.org/manual/primary-7-new-testament/lesson-2-jesus-christ-volunteered-to-be-our-savior?lang=eng&query=%22jesus+christ+volunteered+to+be+our+savior%22.
  5. Bruce McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, 359, 752; John A. Widtsoe, Evidences and Reconciliations, 3 vols. in 1 (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1960), 1:62; Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1965-73), 2:36 on IGLCD; James Talmage, Articles of Faith, 145; Joseph F. Smith, Gospel Doctrine (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1986), 61; B. H. Roberts, The Mormon Doctrine of Deity (Salt Lake City: Signature, 1998), 241-42; Eric Shuster and Charles Sale, The Biblical Roots of Mormonism (Springville, UT: CFI, 2010), 55; Daniel H. Ludlow, Latter-day Prophets Speak (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1948) on IGLCD; Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:38, 49-50; Gospel Principles (1995), 137; (2009), 32; “What We Believe: The Holy Ghost Testifies of Truth,” Ensign, vol. 40, no. 3 (March 2010): 10; “What We Believe: The Holy Ghost Testifies of Truth,” Liahona, vol. 34, no. 3 (March 2010): 14; William J. Critchlow, Jr., GCR (April 1, 1966) on IGLCD; Errol R. Fish, Promptings of the Spirit (Mesa, AZ: Cogent, 1970), 44, 99, 236 on IGLCD; Hoyt W. Brewster, Jr., Doctrine and Covenants Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1996), 247 on IGLCD.
  6. 1 Nephi 13:26-29; 2 Nephi 29:10; Joseph Smith, Inspired Version: The Holy Scriptures (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing, 1944), 3; Joseph Smith, History of the Church, 8 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1980), 1:245; 6:57; Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 9-10; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2007), 208; Articles of Faith 1:8; Joseph Fielding Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 5 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret, [1957]), 1:xi; Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1988), 53; Discourses of Brigham Young, compiled by John A. Widtsoe (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1978), 124; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1997), 121; B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. (Provo: BYU Press, 1965), 1:239; Rulon T. Burton, We Believe (Salt Lake City: Tabernacle, 1994), 74; Gospel Principles (2009), 74; “A Latter-day Testament of Biblical Truth,” Ensign, vol. 31., no. 1 (January 2001): 24, 27-28; “Restoring the Kingdom of God,” Ensign, vol. 36, no. 10 (October 2006): 42; Clyde J. Wiliams, “Plain & Precious Truths Restored,” Ensign, vol. 36, no. 10 (October 2006): 50, 54; Robert L. Millet, “The Ancient Covenant Restored,” Ensign (March 1998) on CMCD; Book That Transforms Lives,” Ensign (September 1997) on CMCD; Lance B. Wickman, “Of Compasses and Covenants,” Ensign (June 1996) on CMCD; Ray L. Huntington and Camille Fronk, “Latter-day Clarity on Christ’s Life and Teachings,” Ensign (January 1999) on CMCD; Hartman Rector, Jr., “The Resurrection,” Ensign (November 1990) on CMCD; Donald B. Doty, “Why is the Book of Mormon the ‘most correct book on earth?'”, Ensign (August 1988) on CMCD; Keith Meservy, “Four Accounts of Creation,” Ensign (January 1986) on CMCD; Robert L. Millet, “Joseph Smith and the New Testament,” Ensign (December 1986) on CMCD; Victor L. Ludlow, “Are there things we are learning or can learn from contemporary biblical criticism?,” Ensign (April 1985) on CMCD; Hartman Rector, Jr., “Going Home Clean,” New Era (April 1991) on CMCD; Robert J. Matthews, A Bible! A Bible! (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1990), 93 on IGLCD; Paul Cheesman, Monte S. Nyman, and Charles D. Tate, Jr., ed., Book of Mormon Symposium Series (Provo: Religious Studies Center, [1988]), 205 on IGLCD.
  7. Doctrine and Covenants 76:58; 132: 20; The Teachings of Lorenzo Snow, 2; Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 346-47; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith, 481; Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, 257; Milton R. Hunter, The Gospel Through the Ages (Salt Lake City: Stevens and Wallis, 1945), 115-16; Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 2:39, 48; Joseph F. Smith, Gospel Doctrine, 64; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph F. Smith (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1998), 337; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Harold B. Lee (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2000), 16; Melvin J. Ballard, Three Degrees of Glory (Salt Lake City: Joseph Lyon & Associates, 1975), 9; Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley, 179; The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson,21; The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, 26-28, 170; Spencer W. Kimball, The Miracle of Forgiveness (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1969), 6; Discourses of Brigham Young, 227; Orson Pratt, The Seer (Washington, D.C.: n.p.), 132-33; Joseph Fielding Smith, “Adam’s Role in Bringing Us Mortality,” Ensign, vol. 36, no. 1 (January 2006): 53; Liahona (January 2006): 9; Orson F. Whitney, “The Apocalypse,” Brian H. Stuy, Collected Discourses, 5 vols. (Woodland Hills, UT: B.H.S., 1987-92) on IGLCD; William E. Berrett, “The Life and Character of the Prophet Joseph Smith,” Brigham Young University Speeches of the Year (Provo: BYU Press, 1960-66) on IGLCD; Terry R. Baker, “How Gospel Truth Enhance Self-Esteem in Marriage,” Ensign, 14.7 (July 1984) on CMCD; Petrea Kelly, “The Joys of Motherhood,” Liahona, 16.3 (March 1992) on CMCD; George P. Lee, “Staying Unspotted From the World,” Ensign (May 1978) on CMCD; Joseph B. Wirthlin, “Little Things Are Important,” Liahona (June 1988) on CMCD; L. Tom Perry, “Learning to Serve,” Ensign (August 1996) on CMCD; Glen M. Leonard, “Sculpture from the Church’s Second International Art Competition,” Ensign (August 1991) on CMCD; Gerald N. Lund, “I Have a Question,” Ensign (February 1982) on CMCD; N. Eldon Tanner, “Ye Shall Know the Truth,” Ensign (May 1978) on CMCD; Eldred G. Smith, “Decision,” Ensign (May 1978) on CMCD; Marvin J. Ashton, “Proper Self-Management,” Ensign (November 1976) on CMCD; Spencer W. Kimball, “First Presidency Message: Ocean Currents and Family Influences,” Ensign (January 1984 and 1974), Liahona (June 1984) on CMCD; David S. King,”Dealing Successfully With Change,” Ensign (February 1981) on CMCD; Spencer W. Kimball, “President Kimball Speaks Out on Morality,” Ensign and New Era (November 1980) on CMCD; William E. Berrett, “Joseph Smith—Five Qualities of Leadership,” New Era (June 1977), Liahona (January 1978) on CMCD.
  8. 2 Nephi 2:22-23, 25; Moses 5:11; 6:47-48; Joseph Fielding Smith, Seek Ye Earnestly… (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1970), 4-5; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: John Taylor (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2001), 41-42; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Harold B. Lee (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2000), 21; Chauncey C. Riddle, “The New and Everlasting Covenant,” in Doctrines for Exaltation: The 1989 Sperry Symposium on Doctrine and Covenants (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1989), 228; Hugh B. Brown, Mormonism (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1962), 37-38; McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, 268; Hunter, The Gospel Through the Ages, 12-14; Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:113, 115; Discourses of Brigham Young, 55, 61, 103; Gospel Principles (1995), 33; ibid., (2009), 33; Talmage, Articles of Faith, 63-64, 428-29; “An Optimistic View of The Fall Drawn from The Book of Mormon,” LDS Church News (October 14, 1995) on IGLCD; “The Fall of Adam Was Necessary Event,” LDS Church News (January 20, 1990) on IGLCD; Orson F. Whitney, Saturday Night Thoughts: A Series of Dissertations on Spiritual, Historical and Philosophic Themes (Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1921), 83 on IGLCD; Spencer J. Condie, “The Fall and Infinite Atonement,” Ensign (January 1996) on CMCD; Robert J. Matthews, “Using the New Bible Dictionary in the LDS Edition,” Ensign (June 1982) on CMCD.
  9. Joseph Fielding Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 5 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1966), 2:32; Doctrines of Salvation, 2:9; McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, 669-70; The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, 342; The Teachings of Lorenzo Snow, 91; Robert R. Millet, A Different Jesus? (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005), 94-95, 97; Oscar W. McConkie, Jr., The Kingdom of God (n.c.: The Presiding Bishopric, 1962), 322-323; Talmage, Articles of Faith, 78-79, 81; James E. Talmage, The House of the Lord: Adapted From the Original Text of James E. Talmage (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1979), 64 on IGLCD; Latter-day Tracts (Pamphlets) 109, “The House of the Lord by James E. Talmage,” on IGLCD; B. H. Roberts, The Gospel and Man’s Relationship to Deity, 2 vols. in 1(Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1965), 3 on IGLCD; Alma Sonne, GCR (April 1, 1969) on IGLCD; John A. Widtsoe, GCR (October 1941) on IGLCD; Jonathan C. Cutler, GCR (October 1918) on IGLCD; Stephen L. Richards, GCR (April 1941) on IGLCD; Hugh B. Brown, GCR (April 1, 1965) on IGLCD; Joseph Fielding McConkie, Robert L. Millet, and Brent L. Top, Doctrinal Commentary on the Book of Mormon, 4 vols. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1997-1992), 1:192; 3:77 on IGLCD; Arthur Henry King, “Atonement: The Only Wholeness,” Ensign (April 1975) on CMCD; Theodore M. Burton, “Salvation and Exaltation,” Ensign (July 1972) on CMCD; Bruce R. McConkie, “What is Salvation?”, New Era (April 1971) on CMCD.
  10. 3 Nephi 27:16-17; Alma 34:32; D&C 1:31-33; Joseph Smith, Jr., “Gospel Classics,” Ensign, vol. 32, no. 7 (July 2002): 31; McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, 295-296, 298, 329; Joseph F. Smith, Gospel Doctrine, 125, 210; Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 2:3, 27-28; Answers to Gospel Questions, 1:71; Seek Ye Earnestly…, 272; Church History and Modern Revelation (Salt Lake City: The Council of The Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 1946), 200, on IGLCD; Rulon T. Burton, We Believe, 131; Spencer W. Kimball, The Miracle of Forgiveness, 4-6, 9, 353; Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, 69; Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley, 401; Ballard, Three Degrees of Glory, 5-6, 12, 35; Hugh B. Brown, Mormonism, 47-47; Discourses of Brigham Young, 390; The Teachings of Lorenzo Snow, 16-17; Talmage, Articles of Faith, 97-98; “The Articles of Faith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,” Liahona, vol. 35, no. 12 (December 2011): 69; Christoffel Golden, Jr., “Our Father’s Plan,” Ensign, vol. 31, no. 11 (November 2001): 30; V. Dallas Merrell, “Will You?”, Ensign, vol. 31, no. 10 (October 2001): 52; Boyd K. Packer, “The Standard of Truth Has Been Erected,” Ensign, vol. 33, no. 11 (November 2003): 24; Carlos V. Revillo, “Favored of the Lord,” Ensign, vol. 34, no. 1 (January 2004): 22; Ronald V. Halverson, “I Stand at the Door, and Knock,” Ensign, vol. 34, no. 11 (November 2004): 33; Russell M. Nelson, “The Mission and Ministry of the Savior,” Ensign, vol. 35, no. 6 (June 2005): 19; David A. Bednar, “Becoming a Missionary,” Ensign, vol. 35, no. 11 (November 2005): 46; “The Purpose of Life,” Ensign, vol. 36, no. 8 (August 2006): 65; Liahona, vol. 30. no. 8 (August 2006): 11; David B. Haight, “The Sacrament—and the Sacrifice,” Ensign, vol. 37, no. 4 (April 2007): 18; Liahona, vol. 31, no. 4 (April 2007): 14; Keith B. McMullin, “Lay Up In Store,” Ensign, vol. 37, no. 5 (May 2007): 51; Boyd K. Packer, “Come to the Temple,” Ensign, vol. 37, no. 10 (October 2007): 20; Liahona, vol. 31, no. 10 (October 2007): 16; Marcus B. Nash, “Cultivating Righteousness,” Ensign, vol. 38, no. 8 (August 2008): 30; Boyd K. Packer, “Who Is Jesus Christ?”, Ensign, vol. 38, no. 3 (March 2008): 15; Liahona, vol. 32, no. 3 (March 2008): 15; Russell M. Nelson, “Salvation and Exaltation,” Ensign, vol. 38, no. 5 (May 2008): 8; Dieter F. Uchtdorf, “Faith of Our Father,” Ensign, vol. 38, no. 5 (May 2008): 75; Lawrence E. Corbridge, “The Way,” Ensign, vol. 38, no. 11 (November 2008): 36; Quentin L. Cook, “Our Father’s Plan—Big Enough for All His Children,” Ensign, vol. 39, no. 5 (May 2009): 37; Dale G. Renlund, “Preserving the Heart’s Mighty Change,” Ensign, vol. 39, no. 11 (November 2009): 97-98; Paul K. Sybrowsky, “This Do In Remembrance of Me,” Ensign, vol. 40, no. 2 (February 2010): 34; Robert D. Hales, “Agency: Essential to the Plan of Life,” Ensign, vol. 40, no. 11 (November 2010): 26-27; Dallin H. Oaks, “Fundamental to Our Faith,” Ensign, vol. 41, no. 1 (January 2011): 25; Keith B. McMullin, “The Power of the Aaronic Priesthood,” Ensign, vol. 41, no. 11 (November 2011): 47; “Are You Saved by Grace or Works,” New Era, vol. 35, no. 3 (March 2005): 38; Shelly L. Johnson, “The Price I Couldn’t Pay,” New Era, vol. 35, no. 9 (September 2005): 26; “In a Word: Exaltation,” New Era, vol. 42, no. 2 (February 2012): 39; “Brian H. Stuy, Collected Discourses, on IGLCD; Joseph F. Smith, GCR (April 1880), on IGLCD; George Albert Smith, GCR (October 1907, 1930), on IGLCD; George F. Richards, GCR (October 1932), on IGLCD; Milton R. Hunter, GCR (April 1954), on IGLCD; Larry E. Dahl and Charles D. Tate. eds., The Lectures on Faith in Historical Perspective (Provo: Religious Studies Center, 1990), 190 on IGLCD; Wilford Woodruff, Journal of Discourses, 26 vols. (London: Latter-day Saints’ Book Depot, 1854-1886), 19:137, on IGLCD; Daniel H. Ludow, ed., Encyclopedia of Mormonism (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 557, on IGLCD; Arthur Henry King, “Atonement: The Only Wholeness,” Ensign (April 1975) on CMCD; Theodore M. Burton, “Salvation and Exaltation,” Ensign (July 1972) on CMCD; Joseph Fielding Smith, “Blessings of the Priesthood,” Ensign (December 1971) on CMCD; Robert D. Hales, “The Divine Law of Tithing,” Ensign and Liahona (December 1986) on CMCD.
  11. D&C 132:15-17; Joseph F. Smith, Gospel Doctrine, 435-36; Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 2:32, 61-62, 73; Answers to Gospel Questions, 2:118; GCR (October 1951), 119, (April 1941), 37 on IGLCD; Talmage, Articles of Faith, 404; Vitality of Mormonism (Boston: The Gorham Press, 1919), 233, 268 on IGLCD; McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, 35-36, 234; GCR (April 1957), 19; The Messiah Series, 6 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1978-82), 4:379; 6:707 on IGLCD; Hunter, The Gospel Through the Ages, 119-20; GCR (April 1953), 78, (April 1949), 72 on IGLCD; Joseph Smith, History of the Church, 8 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1980), 3:53; 5:502; Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 312; Roberts, The Mormon Doctrine of Deity, 225, 256; Discourses of Brigham Young, 42; Spencer W. Kimball, The Miracle of Forgiveness, 247; The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, 51; B. Renato Maldonado, “Three Degrees of Glory,” Ensign, vol. 35, no. 4 (April 2005), 63; Earl C. Tingey, “Three Messages to Young Adults,” Ensign, vol. 27, no. 4 (April 2007), 37; Jeffrey R. Holland, “The Ministry of Angels,” Ensign, vol. 38, no. 11 (November 2008), 30; Theodore M. Burton, “Salvation and Exaltation,” Ensign (July 1972) on CMCD; Dean Jarman, “Are there guardian angels, and if so, what do they do?”, New Era (September 1983) on CMCD; Liahona (April 1984) on CMCD; “In the House of the Lord,” New Era (June 1975) on CMCD; Spencer W. Kimball, “First Presidency Message: The Importance of Celestial Marriage,” Ensign (October 1979); Liahona (July 1980) on CMCD; “Temples and Eternal Marriage,” Ensign (August 1974; February 1995) on CMCD; GCR (October 1964), 28 on IGLCD; Robert J. Matthews, “The Fulness of Times,” Ensign (December 1989) on CMCD; Milton R. Hunter, “God’s Greatest Gift,” BYU Speeches of the Year (December 15, 1964) on IGLCD; Daniel H. Ludlow, “Section 129,” A Companion to Your Study of the Doctrine and Covenants, 2 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1978) on IGLCD; Daniel H. Ludlow, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 368 on IGLCD; Bruce R. McConkie, Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1965-73), 1:607 on IGLCD; Hyrum M. Smith and Janne M. Sjodahl, Doctrine and Covenants Commentary (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1954), 139 on IGLCD; Hoyt W. Brewster, Jr., Doctrine and Covenants Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1996), 360 on IGLCD; Joseph Smith, Jr., ed., Elders’ Journal of the Church of the Latter-day Saints (Kirtland, Ohio, and Far West, Missouri: October 1837 to August 1838), 42 on IGLCD; John A. Widtsoe, Evidences and Reconciliations, 108; LeGrand Richards, GCR (October 1961), 67 on IGLCD; George Q. Morris, GCR (October 1959), 49 on IGLCD; Delbert L. Stapley, GCR (April 1955), 68 on IGLCD; Rudger Clawson, GCR (April 1914), 23 on IGLCD; Joseph Fielding McConkie, Joseph Smith, The Choice Seer (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1996) on IGLCD; Orson Pratt, Journal of Discourses (London: Latter-day Saints’ Book Depot, 1854-1886), 1:65; 15:322 on IGLCD; Orson Hyde, JD, 2:86 on IGCLD; Heber C. Kimball, JD, 10:237 on IGLCD; Parley P. Pratt, Key to the Science of Theology (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1948), 178 on IGLCD; Robert J. Millet and Joseph Fielding McConkie, The Life Beyond (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1986), 127 on IGLCD; James B. Allen, “The Historians Corner,” BYU Studies, vol. 20, no. 4 (Summer 1980), 414; B. Kent Harrison and Mary Stovall Richards, “Feminism in the Light of the Gospel of Jesus Christ,” BYU Studies, vol. 36, no. 2 on IGLCD.
  12. D&C 57:1-3; 84:1-5; Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 79-80;Joseph Smith, History of the Church, 1:189, ; Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1:254; 310-12; 2:441; 3:282-83; 5:532; B. H. Roberts, Defense of the Faith and the Saints, 2 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1907-1912), 1:438; 2:474 on IGLCD; The Missouri Persecutions (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, n.d), 42 on IGLCD; Outlines of Ecclesiastical History: A Text Book, 6th ed. (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1950), 343 on IGLCD; The Seventy’s Course in Theology (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1907), 227 on IGLCD; Talmage, Articles of Faith, 319; Hunter, The Gospel Through the Ages, 277, 280-82, Francis M. Gibbons, Joseph Smith Martyr Prophet of God (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1977), 105-6; LeGrand Richards, A Marvelous Work and a Wonder (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1980), 212-13; McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, 532, 855; Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 3:72, 77; The Way to Perfection: Short Discourses on Gospel Themes, 9th ed. (Salt Lake City: Genealogical Society of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1951) on IGLCD; “The First Prophet of the Last Dispensation,” Ensign (August 1971) on CMCD; Carter E. Grant, The Kingdom of God Restored (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1955), 143-146; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith, 11, 183-84; The Teachings of Lorenzo Snow, 153-54, 182; Alexander L. Baugh, “From High Hopes to Despair: The Missouri Period 1831-39,” Ensign, vol. 31, no. 7 (July 2001): 46; Max H. Parkin, “Lessons From the Experience,” Ensign, vol. 31, no. 7 (July 2001): 52; “Missouri’s Impact on the Church,” Ensign (April 1979) on CMCD; Shirley D. Christensen, “I, the Lord God, Make You Free,” Ensign, vol. 36, no. 2 (February 2006): 28; LaRene Gaunt, “Legacy,” Ensign (July 1993) on CMCD; Lynn Rosenvall, “Discovery,” Ensign (June 1974) on CMCD; Marion G. Romney, “Temples—The Gates to Heaven,” Ensign (March 1971) on CMCD; “The Saints in Missouri,” Friend (November 1985) on CMCD; “150 Years of Church History,” Liahona (April 1980) on CMCD; “A Picture Tour—Important Church History Sites,” Liahona (September 1978) on CMCD; Paul R. Cheesman, Monte S. Nyman, and Charles D. Tate, Jr., eds. Book of Mormon Symposium Series, 216 on IGLCD; Susan Easton Black, “Lord Revealed Missouri as ‘The Land of Promise, Place for City of,” LDS Church News, Deseret News (June 18, 1994) on IGLCD; Milton V. Blackman, Jr., “Restoration of Tradition of Temples,” LDS Church News, Deseret News (June 11, 1994) on IGLCD; “Early Saints Were Eager To See Site of ‘City of Zion,’” LDS Church News, Deseret News (April 17, 1993) on IGLCD; Richard O. Cowan, “Temple Work: Century of Progress,” LDS Church News, Deseret News (March 20, 1993) on IGLCD; Larry C. Porter, “Joseph Fulfilled Eternal Commission,” LDS Church News, Deseret News (January 30, 1993) on IGLCD; Jeff Cardon, “God’s Promises Don’t Fail: He Remember All His Covenants,” LDS Church News, Deseret News (October 24, 1992) on IGLCD; Mike Cannon, “Saints’ Colonization Moved Westward,” LDS Church News, Deseret News (January 14, 1989) on IGLCD; Orson F. Whitney, “Zion and Her Redemption,” Stuy, Brian H., ed. Collected Discourses, 5 vols. (Burbank, California, and Woodland Hills, Utah: B.H.S. Publishing, 1987-1992) on IGLCD; Gerald N. Lund, The Coming of the Lord (Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, 1971), 100 on IGLCD; Philip C. Reynolds, ed., Commentary on the Book of Mormon, 6 vols. (Salt Lake City, Utah), 6:39 on IGLCD; Franklin D. Richards and James A. Little, eds., A Compendium of the Doctrines of the Gospel (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1882), 106 on IGLCD; Brewster, Jr., Doctrine and Covenants Encyclopedia, 57, 87, 238, 264, 362, 384 on IGLCD; Ludlow, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 678-79, 922, 1009, 1116, 1336, 1451, 1653, 1765 on IGLCD; Richard R. Lyman, GCR (April 1926) on IGLCD; Brigham H. Roberts, GCR (October 1924) on IGLCD; J. G. Duffin, GCR (April 1902) on IGLCD; Monte S. Nyman, Great are the Words of Isaiah (Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, 1980), 26 on IGLCD; S. Kent Brown, Donald Q. Cannon, and Richard H. Jackson, eds., Historical Atlas of Mormonism (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), 34, 138 on IGLCD; McConkie and Millet, Joseph Smith: The Choice Seer on IGLCD; Andrew Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 4 vols. (A. Jenson History Company and Deseret News, 1901-36), 1:218 on IGLCD; Joseph Fielding Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith: Sixth President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1938), 47 on IGLCD; James R. Clark, ed., Messages of the First Presidency, 6 vols. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1965-1975), 4:237 on IGLCD; McConkie, Messiah Series, 6:280; Bruce R. McConkie, A New Witness for the Articles of Faith (Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1985), 595 on IGLCD; Ben. E. Rich, ed., Scrapbook of Mormon Literature, 2 vols. (Chicago: Henry C. Etten & Co., 1913), 143; L. G. Otten and C. M. Caldwell, Sacred Truths of the Doctrine and Covenants (LEMB, Inc., 1982), 69 on IGLCD;, Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and T. Jeffery Cottle, A Window to the Past (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1993), 3, 6 on IGLCD;, Milton V. Backman, Jr. and Keith W. Perkins, ed., Writings of Early Latter-day Saints and Their Contemporaries, A Database Collection. Excerpts, 2nd ed., rev. and enlarged (Provo: Religious Studies Center, 1996), 71 on IGLCD.
  13. Which includes polygamous marriage—as well as, marriage for “time and eternity”—baptism for the dead and the exhaustive search for genealogical records; the wearing of “sacred undergarments” at all times; the Endowment Ceremony; prohibition against hot drinks; blacks and the Mormon priesthood; Reformed Egyptian writing; Reformed Egyptian Jewish American Indians; Heavenly Father siring Jesus with Mary; Adam-God doctrine; Adam is Michael theory; Jesus is Jehovah, while Elohim is not; the warrior Zelph; white salamanders; Nephites, Lamanites, and whatever other “ites” there are, to name just a few of the Mormon oddities and eccentricities, all of which are equally as easily documental as the aforementioned primary doctrines above, and are regularly dismissed by Mormon apologists as not “official doctrine,” even though they are.
  14. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 2:27.
  15. Richard N. Ostling and Joan K. Ostling, Mormon America (New York: HarperCollins, 1999), 122.

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